Termination of a Contract & Damages

Termination of a Contract & Damages

In this lesson, you’re expected to learn:
– the basis on which a contract can be terminated
– the different types of damages and how they’re awarded
– the basics of dispute resolution and international law
The termination of a contractual relation, also called discharge of a contract, may have different reasons. The main ones are:
1) Discharge by the lapse of time

A contract can be made for a:

 Definite term: the parties have designated the passage of time as the event that triggers the end of the legal relationship under the contract;

 Indefinite term: the parties have not designated the specific time in which the contract will be ended. Usually a notice from one party to the other indicates the end of the contract; and

• Perpetual duration: when the contract has no designated event that ends the contractual relationship. Neither party possesses the right or the power to end it.

2) Discharge by Performance

A contract expires when each party has performed its duties under the contract.

NOTE: “Performance” means “substantial performance”, not necessarily performance to the very last detail. To determine whether the essential parts of the contract have been performed, it is necessary to look at the main provisions agreed; if these have not been achieved, the cost of completing the work can be subtracted from the agreed-upon price of the contract.

3) Discharge by Breach of Contract

If one party fails in a material way to perform, the other party has no obligation on the contract and it may have a prior termination by breach:

• Anticipatory breach: occurs when a party manifests an intent not to perform its obligation under the contract, before performance is due.
• Actual breach occurs when a party fails to perform when actual performance is due.

4) Discharge by Mutual Understanding

The most common way is by rescission (the revocation, cancellation, or repeal of a law, order, or agreement). It can be:

• Mutual rescission: when the parties agree to cancel or annul the contract and to return any consideration they received.

• Unilateral rescission: where one party was subjected to fraud or duress, and thus seeks to put itself in the position it occupied before the contract was entered into.

Damages
There are several judicial remedies for a breach of contract such as award of damages, specific performance, injunction, rescission, and reformation.

In a breach of contract claim, the plaintiff must prove the following:
• The existence of a contract
• The breach of contract
• The injury or damage suffered by him/her

When a breach of contract claim is proved, the most common remedy granted by courts is the award of damages.

Damages refer to the compensation due to the non-breaching party of a contract to recover any financial loss or injury causedby the breach of the contract.

Types of Damages

The two main categories of damages are:

1) Compensatory Damages (or “actual damages”)
They are imposed when there has been a material breach of the contract that has caused measurable damages to the injured party. The amount awarded is intended to cover the loss to the injured party.

2) Punitive Damages
They are imposed upon the breaching party in order to deter or punish him/her, rather than to compensate the injured party. They are rarely awarded for breach of contract and they arise more often in tort cases.

Limitations on the Award of Compensatory Damages

There are three limitations on the award of damages:

1) Reasonable certainty of harm: it aims at eliminating speculative losses. Damages must be established by evidence that shows a reasonable degree of certainty.

2) Foreseeability of harm: damages are not recoverable for loss that the party in breach did not have reason to foresee as a probable result of the breach when the contract was made. It may not be considered lost profits in damages.

3) Avoidability of harm (duty to mitigate): the non-breaching party is obligated to mitigate, or minimize, the amount of damages to a reasonable extent. Damages cannot be recovered for losses that could have been reasonably avoided or substantially ameliorated after the breach occurred.

NOTE: The mitigating party is entitled to compensation for the cost of mitigation. These direct costs of mitigation which can reasonably be anticipated by the parties are called “incidental damages”.

If the breaching party knew or had reason to know that losses would result from the breach, “consequential damages” are also allowed as part of the compensatory damages. In this case, indirect damages can include injury and lost profits if foreseeability and certainty are met.

Liquidated Damages

Liquidated damages are well recognized in both civil and common law countries as a mechanism for determining in advance what the damages will be if a contract is breached. However, if the amount is unreasonable, meaning it is considered a penalty for breach, liquidated damages are not enforceable.

Additionally, liquidation damages are only appropriate when they apply to a breach that is uncertain in nature. If there is a way to calculate the damage done by the breach, that amount should be used.

Interests Protected through the Award of Contract Damages

There are three principal interests which may be protected through the award of contract damages:

1) Expectation Interest

Focuses on the injured party and it is forward-looking. It aims at putting the injured party in the same (monetary) position that he/she would have been in had the contract been fully performed. The measure is the wealth of the injured party if promise had been performed.

2) Reliance Interest

Also focuses on the injured party, but it is backward-looking. Damages are awarded based on putting the injured party in as good a position as he/she was prior to the promise. It does so by reimbursing him/her for the loss caused by reliance on the contract.

3) Restitution Interest 

Focuses on the breaching party and it is backward-looking. It is applicable when there is an unjust enrichment of the breaching party and it aims at putting him/her back in the position he/she was prior to the promise. The party in breach must return any benefits obtained from the injured party.

The following table highlights the basic characteristics of the three interests:
[Optional] Breach, Damages, and Remedies in Contract
Watch this 5-minute video to learn more: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VtHtHPWOlQM
International Business Transactions & Dispute resolution
To understand international business transactions embodied in contracts for services, leasing agreements, consumer law, insurance law, construction law, the sale of real property, agency and antitrust law, employment and labor law, franchising and banking laws etc., it is necessary to look at the differences in international law and international systems that impact the development of international commercial agreements.
Dispute Resolution

In the area of dispute resolution, arbitration as opposed to the use of courts is normally preferred due to the following reasons:

• Cost: the arbitration cost is generally lower than going to court;

• Flexibility: the arbitration process has greater flexibility since there is no standard rules and the parties themselves can lead the process;

• Language: the parties may choose freely and agreed the language in which to lead the arbitration, which can not be limited to the national languages of those involved;

• Confidentiality: arbitration is essentially a private process, where the arbitrator and the parties undertake not to disclose the details and to maintain the privacy of any information that is disclosed in the process;

• Neutrality: while national judges may be biased or may be lack of competence, the arbitrator is an independent expert appointed by the parties and specialized in the subject matter of litigation; and

• Enforceability of arbitral awards: The final award of an arbitral tribunal, which is a binding decision, is a directly enforceable decision both nationally and internationally.

Additionally, in developing international business transactions, it is important to identify which sources of law apply in the host country, as there are numerous possibilities that differ based on the countries involved.

To avoid uncertain and unpredictability, most international contracts include provisions for the applicable law. The primary sources of law for developing international commercial agreements include:

• treaties and executive orders;
• legislation and government regulations;
• court made law and arbitral decisions;
• general principles of international law; and
• customary international law.

[Optional] Arbitration Explained
Watch this 3-minute video about international commercial arbitration:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dUi_phYXrY
Common vs Civil law systems: contract law perspective
Differences between Common Law & Civil Law Systems from the Contract Law Perspective

The common law and civil law approaches to contracts are similar in many respects. However, there are certain aspects of the two systems that international business developers should be aware of to ensure that they properly protect their needs and interests.

These differences affect not only the kinds of contracts that are enforceable under each system, but also the steps of creating a contractual agreement and the damage available upon its breach.

The main differences are:

1) Content of a contract and freedom to contract

The common law system is not primarily based on codes and statutes and thus, from the contract law perspective, there are few provisions implied into a contract. The parties have an extensive freedom of contract and it is important to set out in detail all the terms governing their relationship under the contract.

When it comes to common law contracts, almost everything is permitted that is not expressly prohibited by law. As a consequence, contracts tend to be longer than one in a civil law country.

Civil law systems typically have extensive standard rules and the parties have less freedom of contract because there are a number of provisions implied into a contract.  It is not necessary to set out all the terms governing the contract because inadequacies or ambiguities can be remedied or resolved by operation of law. This will often result in a contract being shorter than one in a common law country.

2) Consideration

In order to have a binding contract in a civil law jurisdiction, there must be:
• an offer
• an acceptance
• an intention to be bound

In common law jurisdictions, there is one additional element – consideration. A contract has no binding effect unless supported by consideration. This is a typical common law concept under contract law.

3) Bilateral & Unilateral Contracts

Although both common and civil law have a similar classification of contracts, unilateral and bilateral contracts are different in those systems. The common law focuses on “consideration” of the parties and the civil law instead focuses on the parties’ “obligations” to each other.

In the common law system, if considerations in both directions are to be moved after the contract, it is called a bilateral contract. In the civil law system, a bilateral contract is one in which both parties are bound to fulfil obligations reciprocally towards each other.

4) Onerous & Gratuitous Promises

A contract where one party provides an advantage without receiving anything of value (consideration) in return, such as a donation, is a gratuitous contract.

Under the common law, only onerous promises are enforceable, since gratuitous promises lack consideration. However, under the civil law, it would be possible for a party to be obligated to deliver on the promise of a gift or action.

5) Performance Damages & Remedies

Under the common law system, “specific performance” is an equitable remedy reserved for only the most extraordinary circumstances, such as the transfer of unique property. Common law courts rarely order it but instead they award monetary damages calculated based on either the injured party’s reasonable expectation of reward or restitution of their loss.

Simultaneously, the common law system will also require the injured party to mitigate damages, thereby encouraging economic efficiency through the completion of the envisioned transaction.

On the other hand, the civil law system desires to enforce the parties’ voluntarily enacted obligations. Therefore, specific performance is a statutory remedy that the civil law courts are expected to turn to first. It may be replaced by monetary damages only in cases where specific performance is either unfeasible or inadmissible.

[Optional] Performance, Substantial Performance, and Breach
Watch this 3-minute video that explains the levels of performance under a contract:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvXAq3NqiY8
Jim Rohn Sứ mệnh khởi nghiệp