Manufacturing and Service Processes
– the transformation process model
– the difference between manufacturing and service processes
– the product-process matrix
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• Input resources can be classified into transformed resources, i.e. those that are treated, transformed and converted in the process, and transforming resources, i.e. those that act upon the transformed resources.
1) Project processes: processes that deal with discrete, usually highly customized products. Each project is unique.
2) Jobbing (job shop) processes: deal with high variety and low volumes, although there may be some repetition of flow and activities. Products are usually smaller in comparison to projects.
3) Batch processes: treat batches of products together, on which each batch has its own process route.
4) Mass processes: produce goods in high volume and relatively low variety.
5) Continuous process: produce goods in high volume and low variety, usually in an endless flow. Examples: petrochemicals and electricity.
• Professional services: are devoted to producing knowledge-based or advice-based service, usually involving high customer contact and high customization. Examples: management consultants, lawyers, architects etc.
• Service shops: positioned between professional services and mass services, usually with medium levels of volume and customization.
• Mass services: services that have a high number of transactions, often involving limited customization. Examples: mass transportation services, call centers etc.
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