40. Pipeline Transportation


[MUSIC] Welcome back to our lesson on Pipeline Transportation.
0:10
Upon completion of this lesson, learners should be able to describe the characteristics of freight movement via pipeline transportation. And discuss the fit of freight movement via pipeline.
0:22
Pipeline transportation characteristics include high fix costs associated with creating the pipeline including land occupancy, construction and installation, comparatively low variable costs such as maintenance. While most of us don’t think of pipelines, they’re sort of an out of sight, out of mind entity. Here in Atlanta, we’ve had minor economic disruptions twice in recent months due to pipeline failures.
0:50
With the pipeline providing petroleum from the gulf region to the northeastern part of United States, with the pipeline flowing through Atlanta, serving as a source of fuel for the region. There was a maintenance issue in Alabama causing the pipeline to fail, which then lead to a shortage of gasoline in the Atlanta region and a spike in prices for a week or so.
1:14
Then, in repairing the pipeline, the pipeline was struck by construction equipment, causing a fire and shut down, leading to another few days of supply and pricing issues.
1:25
Pipelines provide the lowest cost per ton mile of freight movement, though there are few commodities that can take advantage of pipeline movement. Pipeline freight movement is also characterized by slow-moving high volumes. With the freight moving from three to four miles per hour. And you may see volumes such as 90,000 gallons per hour moving through a one-foot diameter pipe. Some considerations regarding pipeline movements. In some regions of the world, safety and security can be a concern. Additionally, pipelines have a single capability. That is, they move a single commodity from point A to point B. The scale of pipelines and risk of pipeline failure can be viewed as environmental risks that are unacceptable to the population of certain regions. However, pipelines also enable the transport of large volumes of critical commodities, which may also then provide economic benefits to remote areas such as Alaska.
2:30
The type of freight that is fit to flow through pipelines is limited to liquid and gas movements, such as crude petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas. Pipelines also can serve as a warehousing function for these products as pipelines move materials very slowly in a safe, protected environment. The United States has the largest network of energy pipelines.
2:54
To give you an appreciation for the scale of pipeline operations, some of the largest pipelines include a gas pipeline between Alberta in Canada, at 2,911 kilometers. An oil pipeline called the Transiberian, at 9,344 kilometers of length. And one we hear about in North America, United States, the Trans Alaskan pipeline, at 1,300 kilometers, carrying crude oil.
3:23
In this lesson, we described the characteristics of freight movement via pipeline transportation, and discussed the fit of freight movement via pipeline. Thank you for watching, and we’ll see you on the next lesson. [MUSIC]

Jim Rohn Sứ mệnh khởi nghiệp