23. Manufacturing Systems


[SOUND] Welcome back to our lecture on manufacturing systems and technology. Upon completion of this unit, learners should be able to describe the role and importance of systems and technology in manufacturing and service operations. Describe some of the types of automation used in manufacturing operations. And explain the role and importance of emerging technologies in use in modern manufacturing and service operations. Information systems are critical to effective and efficient manufacturing as they unify and coordinate supply chain planning and operations, both with internal functions and external partners. And they provide a means for conveying data without labor-intense and error-prone manual intervention. And within the individual functions in manufacturing in service operations, information systems support key functions such as planning, tracking, quality control, and performance monitoring.
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Computer-Aided Design or CAD is a system that uses computers and complex graphic software as a tool in the design of products. It also enables designers to develop, adjust, and revise designs easily and quickly, and provides the capability to transmit product design data to the machine level as needed. With Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, functional areas such as design analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and management, providing direct control and monitoring of all the operations.
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Enterprise Resource Planning systems facilitate information flow among business functions within a business, and also manages connections to external customers and suppliers. An ERP system has the ability to process information from all parts of the organization, and all types of transactions within a single integrated solution. This eliminates the need to export or rekey data from multiple independent systems, to arrive at a desired set of results or reports, thus supporting more efficient and error-free operations. Technology-supported automation and mechanization is well-suited to manufacturing in which tasks are often repetitive.
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Automation occurs when a system controls the operation of the equipment and makes decisions about product placement and flow. For example, in a manufacturing facility with automated material delivery systems, a control system will decide where to move the palettes of work in process according to algorithms in the system, and send the instructions to the material handling equipment.
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Conveyors provide a safe, efficient, and effective way to move large quantities of materials between work stations. Conveyors have sensor reading devices attached to gates which read bar codes or other sensors on packages and other transported items, and then automatically direct them to their destination.
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Robots are used to support or replace human effort in manufacturing operations and warehousing operations. Industrial robots typically are comprised of grippers, sensors, microprocessors, etc., and can work in environments that are unfavorable to humans and operate precisely without fatigue. They are used in operations such as welding, assembly, painting, inspection, transport, etc.
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Another technology that is rapidly expanding is the use of intelligent or smart machines in a manufacturing environment to allow specific processes to be performed with minimal intervention. Examples of industrial automation in use today include robotics, lasers that perform precision welding on mechanical assemblies and soldering on microcircuits. And computer integrated manufacturing that controls machining operations like turning, milling, cutting, and drilling.
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Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the manufacturing or printing of three-dimensional solid objects of almost any shape and size from a digital model or CAD design. Equipment applies excessive layers of material until the desired object is created. Some current uses include on-demand service parts manufacturing, new product designs and manufacturing processes for complex components.
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3D printing has the potential to dramatically change manufacturing in some industries and spare parts supply chains across multiple industries.
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Here at Georgia Tech, the space which comprises analytics, big data machine learning, and data science is perhaps the hottest area of growth. With interdisciplinary teams comprised of computer scientists and engineers, operations research specialists, mathematicians, and the others collaborating. And leading to breakthroughs that change the way many components of business and society operate, including the supply chain. This area can generally be viewed as the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Supported by advances in computing hardware and software, and advanced mathematics developments that provide a number of benefits, including the ability to predict requirements such as spare parts needs and finished products demand. As well as providing input to help shape customer demand in the supply chain. And this customer demand shaping can be facilitated through techniques such as suggested selling, pricing, and planning promotion etc. Cloud technologies provide the ability to flexibly store and process data in third party data centers. This allows for rapid right sizing or expansion of data storage and application hosting without incurring a protracted procurement and installation process. With cloud computing, many users can access a shared server or servers to retrieve and update data. And can leverage enterprise-wide licensing of software that is widely used across the organization.
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These benefits support greater collaboration and data sharing, which improves supply chain effectiveness.
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In addition to watching this lecture, as part of this lesson, you should participate in the discussion forum question. Think about a technology that has emerged during your lifetime that has had a significant impact on supply chain management. Please discuss the following. What is the technology?
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What impact has it had on supply chain management?
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Also, think about one of the emerging technologies that we discussed or another technology that you’re aware of. Please discuss the following. What impact do you think it will have on supply chain management in the future in terms of cost savings, service improvement, new business model development opportunities, etc.?
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In this lesson, we’ve described the role and importance of system and technology in manufacturing and service operations, described some of the types of automation used in manufacturing operations. And explained the role and importance of emerging technologies in use in modern manufacturing and service operations. Thank you, and we’ll see you on the next lesson. [SOUND]

Jim Rohn Sứ mệnh khởi nghiệp