22. Operational Improvement


[MUSIC] Welcome back to our lecture on operational improvement.
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Upon completion of this lesson, learner should be able to discuss the principles of the lean philosophy, describe the objects of the lean operations concept, and describe the elements of the Lean operations concept.
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What is lean?. Lean is a business philosophy rather than simply a set of tools and techniques. The lean concept is quite applicable in operations as it seeks the relentless pursuit of eliminating waste across an organization, including the extended supply chain.
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James Womack and Daniel Jones, two pioneers in lean thinking, maintain that five principles underline lean.
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Specifying value as defined by the customer.
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Identifying the value stream that creates and delivers that value.
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Working to ensure information materials and product flow to the customer. Responding to the demand only when there are clear signals to do so.
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And relentlessly pursuing excellence. In support of achieving lean principles, objectives should be maintained to focus on these key areas. Flow, keeping the right material moving continuously toward a supply chain partner that requires that material. Other flows include financial information ownerships, vehicles and equipment, human resources, and reverse logistics. Pull, relay information to an upstream operation about what material, part, or service is required. No upstream production or activity occurs unless requested by a downstream entity.
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Strive for excellence, the pursuit of zero defects. Identify the root cause of errors and then prevent future problems from occurring.
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Optimization, to make operational processes as perfect, effective or functional as possible.
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Standardization, to conform to something that is established as a model or ideal example.
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Simplification, to reduce the scope or complexity of something without diminishing its effectiveness. Two areas that often benefit from simplification are process design and product design.
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So we’ve introduced lean as a philosophy and briefly described key principles and objectives. Now let’s talk about some practical areas to look at applying lean in manufacturing operations.
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Minimizing machine and resource downtime between change overs for manufacturing one item to another, this is very important. In my time as a plant industrial engineer, production supervisor and quality control supervisor in various continuous flow and job shop environments, I can tell you without hesitation that changeovers provide the most opportunity for plants to improve their performance in resource utilization, waste and quality improvement. An ineffective setup with errors, etc., can be extremely wasteful. Elimination of choke points in facility flows entails making sure that the layout and capacity of the facility are appropriate.
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The use of pull systems is when companies relay information or receive signals from a downstream entity, like a work center or a customer, to an upstream operation about what material part or service is required, the desired quantity, and where and when something is needed. No up stream activities or production occurs unless requested by down stream entity. In a push environment, action is taken in anticipation of a request. A company that schedules it’s production according to forecasts rather than customer orders is operating in a push environment. The reality is that few firms operate in a purely pull environment. Across the supply chain there are usually boundaries that separate push processes from pull processes. A company may have pull systems with their internal operations while suppliers still schedule and build according to their own forecasts. Pull systems are about execution rather than planning. The premise behind uniform loading is that each work center within a facility is not independent. The entire production process must be linked together and balanced so that a steady flow of material throughout a facility or across a supply chain results with no shortages or accumulation of inventory along the way. Uniform loading requires the sharing of demand information between work centers and among trading partners. Level scheduling involves scheduling and building a similar product mix every day, during a given period.
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This part of lean operations can be difficult for many companies, particularly those with highly seasonal businesses, or where demand is otherwise erratic. Level scheduling works best with consistent patterns of customer demand.
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Companies that make a limited number of products on an assembly line are ideally suited to benefit from level scheduling. The assembly line tends to move at the same pace everyday, making the routine predictable. The automotive industry serves as an example of level scheduling, cars move down in assembly line at a set and predictable pace. Each line makes a relatively small number of vehicle types at a steady pace. 5S is a Japanese lean methodology, designed to reduce waste and optimize productivity through better work place organization. The following 5S elements or pillars are applied in some company’s efforts to achieve lean manufacturing. Sort, identify and divide items into retain, return, or eliminate. Set in order, create a place for all items needed. Organize, arrange and store material, equipment and supplies. Shine, create a work area that is clean, well lit and organized. Standardize, make the 5S process a habitual part of everyday work. Sustain, on-going application of the knowledge and skills learned from the 5S process applied across the organization.
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In this lesson, we’ve discussed the lean philosophy, described the objectives of the lean operations concept and described the elements of the lean operations concept. Thank you for watching and we’ll see you on the lesson. [MUSIC]

Jim Rohn Sứ mệnh khởi nghiệp