19. Manufacturing Processes

[MUSIC] Welcome back to our lesson on manufacturing processes.
Upon completion of this lesson, learners should be able to describe the various production process structures.
A process is a set of activities that are combined to transform inputs into a product, service, or a combination of products and services. The specific nature of the transformation process can vary greatly by industry. At a high level, there are at least five process choices that can be used to facilitate the desired outputs for the type of products and quantities to be made. In many cases, a combination of these processes may be used by manufacturing to achieve the final output.
Project processes are often highly complex, bringing together a wide variety of elements. The construction of a stadium, for example, may be viewed as a complex project manufacturing process.
A job shop is a type of manufacturing process in which small batches of a variety of custom products are made. In the job shop process flow, most of the products produced require a unique set-up and sequencing of process steps. In a batch process, a manufacturer will begin by processing raw materials to achieve the desired product quantity, and then clean up and reconfigure the line to start the process over again to make a different product. For example, a microbrewery might produce a batch of a new craft lager and then reconfigure the equipment and choose different ingredients to make a batch of craft ale on the same equipment.
Each batch could be as little as a few gallons, or a few hundred gallons, depending on the anticipated customer demand for the specific product.
Repetitive processes are used when a dedicated manufacturing operation produce an output of the same item with little to no variability. The process is designed to deliver a continuous stream of standard output units, with the number of outputs increased or decreased based on differences in customer demand. Once a repetitive process is established, there is no need for machine retooling until that unit or model is retired.
The production of Bic pens serves as a good example of a manufacturing assembly operation using a repetitive process. Repetitive process manufacturing lines have been established to produce the same model of pen in three variants, blue, black, and red. Each line produces a constant output that are eventually sold individually or boxed in larger quantities.
Continues processes, such as those found in process industries like petroleum, are where formulas or recipes are used to convert a continuous stream of raw materials into a flow of output.
A Product/Process Matrix is used to assist in determining appropriate manufacturing operating process models. The matrix shows the five process structures we just described, and plots them based on their comparative volume and product variety.
From project processes at the top as being high variety but low volume, to continuous being high volume and low variety within a given plant.
This graphical depiction can be of assistance for operations managers in understanding the nature of their production requirements and how they align with established operating models.
The various types of manufacturing process types and their respective product outputs can be visualized through simple graphics. For each process type, the corresponding manufacturing outputs are shown in time, from left to right. The shapes shown for each process category are representative of the output for that process. For example, the repetitive process, the exact same product, like the Bic pen previously discussed, is produced without variation.
Using the discrete process, similar products are produced with some variation, like different colors and options for the same model of automobile.
When employing job shop processes, various products are produced in small quantities to customer requirements. Manufacturing could be set up with a continuous process
to produce paint in large volumes, and then packaged in similar unit containers around customer preferences.
Finally, batch processing is used to produce a stable product, like craft beer, in several variations.
In addition to participating in this lecture, learners should undertake the assignment of viewing videos on the various types of manufacturing processes.
In this lesson we’ve described the various production process structures and we’d like to thank you for watching this lesson, and we’ll see you on the next lesson. [MUSIC]

Jim Rohn Sứ mệnh khởi nghiệp